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二〇一七年学界的七个典故带给大家如何单词

2019年3月27日 - 微生物

Eight amazing science stories of 2017

选自BBC, 英文原作见http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-41972289

不要字字句句的翻译,有翻译,有表明,有想象。

START:

Story 1:Star crash

实际科学也能够用罗曼蒂克来诠释,引力波就如荷尔蒙……

In 2017, scientists detected Einstein’s gravitational waves from a
new source -the collision of two dead stars, or neutron stars.
The first direct detection of these waves was announced in 2016,
when the Advanced LIGO laboratories described the warping of space
from the merger of two distant black holes. The result was
hailed as the starting point for a new branch of astronomy, using
gravitational waves to collect data about distant phenomena.

Telescopes from all over the world captured details of the neutron
star merger
as it unfolded. The outburst took place in a galaxy
located roughly a thousand billion, billion km away in the
Constellation Hydra. Some of the facts about these cataclysmic
events
are staggering. For example, neutron stars are so dense
that a teaspoonful would weigh a billion tonnes. The team was also able
to confirm that these collisions lead to the production of the
gold and platinum that exists in the Universe.

让我们来倒推一下。当礼堂想起结婚进行曲,当新郎和新人交流戒指的时候,顿一下,那枚黄金(gold)恐怕铂金(platinum)的钻戒竟来源于古老宇宙的柔情。那久违的痴情来自于两颗中子星(neutron
star)的霸道(cataclysmic
events)碰撞(collision),他们住在长蛇星座(Constellation
Hydra),就如封建时期的自由恋爱,他们的融合(merger)是爆炸性的(outburst)。在她们前边,其余的同舟共济都以黑洞(black
hole)的患难与共,就像封建时代的养父母媒妁之约。在很远很远的地点的大家,试图去商量黑洞或然中子星的痴情,去追究他们释放出来的荷尔蒙–重力波(gravitational
wave)。2015年,咱们已经探测(detection)到黑洞之荷尔蒙之时间和空间之涟漪(warping
of space), 这一意识开辟了天法学的新领域(a new branch of
astronomy),利用重力波去采访来自长期天际的数目。二零一七年,当真爱来临,大家举起望远镜(telescope),收获了愈来愈多少长度期的柔情之密码。

Story 2:Cassini’s final bow

卡西尼飞船,粉身碎骨尤记职分

The Cassini spacecraft arrived in the Saturn system in 2004. In
the 13 years it was operational it transformed our understanding of the
ringed planet and its moons. It discovered geysers spewing
water-ice
out into space from a sub-surface ocean on the icy
satellite of Enceladus
, spied seas and lakes of methane on
Saturn’s biggest moon Titan and watched as a giant storm encircled
Saturn.

But with its fuel tanks running low, Nasa decided to destroy the
satellite in Saturn’s clouds rather than see it collide with a
potential target in the search for life, such as Enceladus, and
contaminate it with terrestrial microbes. On 15 September,
Cassini hurtled into the giant plant’s atmosphere and was torn
apart
. But it still managed to return data to Earth from its dive
towards destruction
.

美利坚联邦合众国宇宙航行局构建的卡西尼飞船(Cassini
spacecraft)曾于2000年始发切磋紫炁星以及月孛星的卫星们(saturn
system),小卡改变了我们对带环行星(ringed
planet)及其卫星(moons)的体味。小卡于二〇一七年七月1二十三日实现了协调的重任,大家好像看到小卡在戏台上向人们深深的鞠了一躬(final
bow),依依不舍的告别了舞台。在小卡努力干活的这13年中,他意识了土卫二就算被冰层覆盖(icy
satellite of Enceladus),但其地下海洋(sub-苹果平板ocean)之喷泉却不停喷射着水冰(geysers spewing
water-ice),他发现了芳香烃(seas and lakes
of methane)湖,他还偶遇了被狂飙袭击(encircled)的金星。

“嘀嘀嘀……”,燃料告急(fuel tanks running
low),为了制止小卡在探寻生命时误撞(collide
with)到罗睺家族的积极分子,继而使得他们被陆地微生物(terrestrial
microbes)所污染(contaminate),小卡冲入(hurtle
into)土星大气层,伤痕累累(torn
apart),就算如此,小卡照旧到位了它的末尾义务,在生死刹那间(from its dive
towards destruction)成功向地球传输了数据。

Story 3:Paris pull-out

美利坚联邦合众国最后和法国首都气象协定分开

While he was on the campaign trail, Donald Trump said he would
“cancel” the Paris climate agreement, taking the US out of the
deal
. But after winning the US election in November of that year, he
made few public pronouncements on the topic of climate change.
Reports emerged that Mr Trump’s advisers were split on the issue,
prompting some commentators to wonder whether the President might be
convinced to stay in the process.

However, on 1 June, President Trump held a press conference in the White
House’s Rose Garden to announce America’s withdrawal. Mr Trump
said: “In order to fulfil my solemn duty to protect America and its
citizens, the United States will withdraw from the Paris
climate accord
but begin negotiations to re-enter either the Paris
accord or a really entirely new transaction on terms that are fair
to the United States.”

As expected, the reaction from Democrats and other world leaders was
damning. Former US President Barack Obama accused the Trump
administration of “rejecting the future“, while former Secretary of
State John Kerry called the decision a “gross abdication of
leadership
“.

川普竞选美国总理时(on the campaign trail)就在和他闹分手(out of the
deal),特朗普上任后分别闹剧却早就销声匿迹(made few public
pronouncements),川普的亲友团平昔对他争议持续(spit on the
issue),她即便和美利坚合众国最终分离(pull-out)的巴黎气象协定(Paris climate
accord/agreement)。整个分手进度中川普的机要词就是“公平”(fair),他声称没有“公平”就从未复合。分手(withdrawal/withdraw)后,对特朗普的谴责声不断,有人说川普短视(rejecting
the future),有人说他根本扬弃了政权(gross abdiction of leadership)。

Story 4:Multiple “Earths”

人类发现了多个类地行星

Of the 3,500 planets now documented to exist beyond our Solar
System
, some are pretty weird. For starters, there’s J1407b, a
distant world with rings that are 200 times larger than the ones
around Saturn.

But this year, astronomers discovered a planetary system with seven
Earth-sized planets. What’s more, these worlds seem to be locked in a
strange “resonance” as they orbit their host star. Intriguingly,
three of the planets are in the habitable zone, where water can remain
liquid on the surface. And where there’s water, there is at least a
chance for life.

大家已经发现了3500颗系外(beyongd our Solar
System)行星,有些行星对我们来说颇为诡异,比如,J1407b行星的光环(rings)比紫炁星还大200倍。但二〇一九年天国学家的得到更甚于今后,他们发觉了太阳系外的7颗如地球般大小的行星,那个行星不仅尺寸与地球相似,他们也一致围绕着一颗恒星转动(orbit
their host star),不仅如此,7颗行星中的3颗还存在着液态水。

Story 5:Recent relative

人类发现了更近的“血亲”

In July, researchers unveiled fossils of five early humans found in
North Africa that showed our species – Homo sapiens – emerged
at least 100,000 years earlier than previously recognised. The finds
suggested that our species did not evolve in a single “cradle” in
East Africa. Instead, modern humans may have been evolving in the same
direction all over the continent.

And there was more big news in human evolution this year. When, in
2015, scientists unveiled the remains of 15 partial skeletons belonging
to a new species of human, it made headlines around the world. At the
time, researchers had been unable to say for sure how old the specimens
of Homo naledi were, but some primitive traits suggested they
could be as much as three million years in age.

This year, team leader Lee Berger announced the remains were just
200,000-300,000 years old. The findings suggested that far from being an
ancestor of present-day people, Homo naledi may even have
encountered very early members of our own species – Homo sapiens.

当年7月,科学钻探人士在北非意识了5具“智人”(Homo
sapiens)化石(fossils),这一意识使得“智人”的发源(emerged)时间被刷新,比此前所认为的时辰早了最少100,000年;起点(evolve)地也还要被刷新,从东非扩充至北非,遵照这一主旋律臆想,整个欧洲大陆都有大概成为“智人”的源点地。

上文只是投砾引珠,人类衍化(human
evolution)研商在二零一七年有更震惊的意识,二零一四年化学家通过15具古人类残骸(remains)发布发现了人类的近期亲–Homo
naledi,地文学家们及时不恐怕准确表露Homo
naledi的历史时代,但经过一些骨干线索(primitive
traits),地经济学家们推断这么些尸骨可能已有300万年的野史了,但二〇一九年,化学家们推翻了前边的揣摸,他们觉得二〇一四年察觉的遗骸现今唯有20到30万年的野史,所以,Homo
naledi并非人类漫长的祖辈(ancestor),他们很有大概和“智人”属于同一时半刻代。

Story 6:Dark skies

美全日食遮天蔽日

On 21 August, a giant shadow cast by the Moon swept across America,
marking the first total solar eclipse since the country’s founding
in 1776 where totality made exclusive landfall in the US. It was
also 99 years since a solar eclipse had crossed from the west to the
east coast.

Millions of people gathered along the eclipse’s path to witness the rare
astronomical event.

And what an awesome event it was. Reporting from Madras, Oregon, the
BBC’s Pallab Ghosh said: “You can see that it’s quarter past 10 in the
morning, but it seems like night-time. We’re just a few seconds away
from the total eclipse… it looks like a smiley face in the sky.”

After totality had passed, he added: “I got goosebumps; it just
feels like a completely dream-like state.”

二〇一七年出现了只属于美利哥(exculsive landfall)的全日食(totality/total solar
eclipse),BBC记者的几个用词传达出看日食的体验:鸡皮疙瘩(goosebumps)和就像是梦境(dream-like
state)。

Story 7:Visitor from beyond

地球之客之系外小行星

Though scientists had been predicting for years that we would be visited
by an asteroid from interstellar space, 2017 was the first time we
spotted one. Discovered by a team using Hawaii’s Pan-Starrs telescope in
October, they were soon sure that the object’s speed and trajectory
indicated an 微生物,origin outside our Solar System. Named ‘Oumuamua, after
the Hawaiian for “a messenger from afar arriving first”, the object
quickly became the subject of an observing campaign with some of the
most powerful telescopes in the world.

In many respects, it turned out to be not dissimilar to objects known
from the furthest reaches of our Solar System – so-called Kuiper
Belt
objects (KBOs) – complete with a reddish hue likely resulting
from irradiation by cosmic rays over millions of years. One
aspect of this cosmic wanderer wasn’t so familiar, however: it’s shape.
Although the investigations are ongoing, ‘Oumuamua seemed to be 10 times
longer than it was wide, making it much more elongated than anything
else in our Solar System.

悠长星际间(interstellar
space),有一颗小行星(asteroid)于二零一七年造访了大家的地球之家,它是我们地球的率先位外系小行星客人,通过体察其速度和轨迹(trajectory),地医学家们得出那颗小行星的出身(origin)并非太阳系。从广大上边来讲,那颗小行星对我们的话并不目生,它像极了柯伊伯带(Kuiper
Belt:太阳系在海王星轨道外侧的黄道面附近、天体密集的空心圆盘状区域)的星斗,
它身着红衣(complete with a reddish
hue),那身红衣很有或许是几百万年来宇宙射线(cosmic
rays)辐射(irradiation)的结果。但从外形来讲,那颗小行星当之无愧于它天外来物的出身,它的长短是上涨幅度的10倍,这比大家太阳系任何星体都更修长(elongated)。

Story 8:Giant iceberg

英豪的冰山逃逸

One of the biggest icebergs ever recorded broke away from
Antarctica’s Larsen C ice shelf in July. But scientists had been
following the development of a large crack for upwards of a decade.
The giant block was estimated to cover an area of roughly 6,000 sq km –
about a quarter the size of Wales.

The calving of bergs at the forward edge of the shelf is a very
natural behaviour. However, scientists think that Larsen C is now at its
smallest extent since the end of the last Ice Age, around 11,700 years
ago. Future studies will be needed to understand how the shelf is
responding to a warming climate.

普天之下变暖给南极推动了全新挑战。一座宏伟冰山(iceberg)于二零一七年七月与南极(Antarctica)大陆冰架(ice
shelf)Larsen C脱离,
那巨大的断裂(crack/calving)冰山是威尔士面积的肆分之一,举中国都市例子的话,这逃逸的冰山面积已接近于3个香江市的面积了。

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